A MODEL FOR N-LET BEHAVIOUR IN FUNCTIONAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
Annraoi de Paor
The n-let effect in functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a
magnification of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and
of consequent force, by segmenting stimulating pulses optimally in time.
It is demonstrated here by exploring the idea that the sarcoplasmic
reticulum functions as a mechanical resonator, from which calcium
release is augmented by hitting the transmural pressure at successive
positive peaks. A new mathematical description of the crossbridge theory
is used to generate muscle force from released calcium.
Keywords: n-let effect, functional electrical stimulation, crossbridge theory, mechanical resonator, root locus method